The aim is to prevent infectious disease from affecting otherwise healthy stocks; to prevent disease spreading from already infected stocks or contaminated facilities; and to ensure adequate stock performance through disease prevention and control.
The goal of biosecurity are: to prevent infectious disease from affecting otherwise healthy stocks; to prevent disease spreading from already infected stocks or contaminated facilities; and to ensure adequate stock performance through disease prevention and control. Some of the most effective strategies used to prevent infectious disease are:
Limiting access of unnecessary visitors to production facilities and preventing access of contaminated vehicles and equipment;
Prescribing a quarantine period (from other facilities) of at least 72 hours for any visitors prior to visiting the farm;
Maintaining a record of all visitors;
Avoiding visits to multiple farms in the same day;
Wearing clean clothes or coveralls, footwear, and any additional personal protective equipment (PPE) or clothes that should not leave the farm being visited;
Establishing, maintaining and monitoring adequate programs for rodent and insect control and preventing direct or indirect contact with other wild animals
Practicing biosecurity entry procedures to and between every section of production.
In addition, it is important to consider all major biosecurity risks such as moving fish in, out, and within the facility; sales, maintenance, equipment and construction personnel; manure removal personnel, fish transfer and vaccination crews; welfare and food safety auditing personnel; and vehicles and equipment among other personnel. Service personnel should not visit any fish stocks after having been in contact with stocks with known or suspected signs of disease. Oftentimes, a simple decline in feed consumption or conversion, or slight change in fish behavior could be the very first sign of disease within a stock. In those circumstances, it is best to limit visits to any other production facilities until the absence of infectious diseases can be confirmed. Fish rearing units and the surrounding areas should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected (when possible) and/or undergo a period of fallow prior to placing a new stock. All fish rearing areas must be predator-proof and care must be followed not to track potential pathogens into the rearing areas. For this purpose, footbaths with a clean disinfectant (or a careful change of footwear) and the use of hand sanitizer just prior to entering the premises can help to minimize the risk of infection with unwanted disease agents. Do not share equipment with other farmers without thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting it and simply do not share it if possible. Finally, be aware that one of the most effective ways to spread infectious diseases is through contaminated vehicles and equipment; mortality and rendering trucks and equipment; and fish transfer and vaccination crews.
Troutlodge has provided high quality certified disease-free salmonid eggs and fish to aquaculture producers worldwide for 75 years. Fish health management has come a long way in that time, with increasing demands being made for documentation by virtually all associated regulatory agencies throughout the world. Fish and their subsequent eggs provided by us, are certified disease-free (Table 1) at their time of sale and ensure a necessary foundation for the fish health management programs of our customers. Regulatory agencies often require health certifications prior to the planting, movement, and/or sale of stocks. These certifications usually require collections by a fish health professional and testing by an accredited laboratory. Consult your local or national regulatory agency for specifics and suggestions. For more info on general examinations, collections, and testing frequency and methodologies the following are good references:
OIE Diagnostic Manual of Aquatic Animal Disease, Seventh Edition, 2016.
Fish Health Blue Book of the American Fisheries Society, Suggested Procedures for the Detection and Identification of Certain Finfish and Shellfish Pathogens, 2016 Edition.
Epizootic Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (EHN)
Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHN)
Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPN)
Oncorhynchus masou Virus (OMV)
Spring Viremia of Carp (SVC)
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHS)
Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISA)
Salmonid alphavirus (SAV)
Table 1. Eggs obtained through Troutlodge are certified disease-free from the pathogens listed.